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Article: 99 Conduct of business of Federal Government

1[99.  Conduct of business of Federal Government.—(1) All executive actions of the Federal Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.

(2)  The 2[Federal Government] shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed 2[in the name of the President] shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any Court on the ground that it was not made or executed by the President.

3[(3) The Federal Government shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of its business.]

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Footnotes:

1.  Item 21 of the schedule to P.O. No. 14 of 1985, substituted Art. 99, in its present form, (w.e.f. March 2, 1985),  in place of the said Art. as adopted in 1973, that read :

“99. Conduct of business of Federal Government.–(1) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Federal Government, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President.

(2)  The Federal Government may regulate the allocation and transaction of its business and may for the convenient transaction of that business delegate any of its functions to officers or authorities subordinate to it.”

2. Section 31(i) of the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010 (10 of 2010), substituted the said words, in place of the word “President” occurring for the first time and the words “in the name of the President” in place of the words “in his name”, in clause (2) of Art. 99, (w.e.f. April 19, 2010).

3. Section 31(ii) of the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010 (10 of 2010), substituted clause (3) of Art. 99, in its present form, (w.e.f. April 19, 2010), in place of clause (3) as substituted by item 21 of the schedule to P.O. No. 14 of 1985, (w.e.f. March, 2, 1985), that read :

(3)  The President shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the business of the Federal Government.


Comparative Table of Article 99 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 :
Constitution of Pakistan 1962 :
32
Constitution of Pakistan 1956 :
41
Constitution of India 1950:
77
Government of India Act 1935:
17


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Leading & Latest Cases on Article 99 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 :

AMIN JAN
DIRECTOR GENERAL T&T AND OTHERS
M.S. SIDDIQI
PAKISTAN
AZIZ-UR-REHMAN
FEDERATION OF PAKISTAN AND OTHERS
TANVEER A QURESHI
PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN, PRESIDENT HOUSE ISLAMABAD & 3 OTHERS
AL-JEHAD TRUST THROUGH RAEES-UL-MUJAHIDIN HABIB AL-WAHABUL KHAIRI,
FEDERATION OF PAKISTAN

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