Pakistan Constitution

CONSTITUTION OF

THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN, 1973

As Amended by The Constitution Twenty Fifth Amendment Act, 2018

(Full Text and Case Law)

CONTENTS

Preamble

PART I
Introductory

Articles

  1. The Republic and its territories.
  2. Islam to be the State religion.
    2A. The Objectives Resolution to form part of substantive provisions.
  3. Elimination of exploitation.
  4. Right of individuals to be dealt with in accordance with the law, etc.
  5. Loyalty to State and obedience to Constitution and law.
  6. High treason.

PART II

Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy

  1. Definition of the State.

CHAPTER 1. – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

  1. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of Fundamental Rights to be void.
  2. Security of person.
  3. Safeguards as to arrest and detention.
    10.A. Right to fair trial.
  4. Slavery, forced labour, etc., prohibited.
  5. Protection against retrospective punishment.
  6. Protection against double punishment and self-incrimination.
  7. Inviolability of dignity of man, etc.
  8. Freedom of movement, etc.
  9. Freedom of assembly.
  10. Freedom of association.
  11. Freedom of trade, business or profession.
  12. Freedom of speech, etc.
    19A, Right to Information.
  13. Freedom to profess religion and to manage religious institutions.
  14. Safeguard against taxation for purposes of any particular religion.
  15. Safeguards as to educational institutions in respect of religion, etc.
  16. Provision as to property.
  17. Protection of property rights.
  18. Equality of citizens.
    25A. Right to education.
  19. Non-discrimination in respect of access to public places.
  20. Safeguard against discrimination in services.
  21. Preservation of language, script and culture.

CHAPTER 2. – PRINCIPLES OF POLICY

  1. Principles of Policy.
  2. Responsibility with respect to Principles of Policy.
  3. Islamic way of life.
  4. Promotion of local government institutions.
  5. Parochial and other similar prejudices to be discouraged.
  6. Full participation of women in national life.
  7. Protection of family, etc.
  8. Protection of minorities.
  9. Promotion of social justice and eradication of social evils.
  10. Promotion of social and economic well-being of the people.
  11. Participation of people in Armed Forces.
  12. Strengthening bonds with Muslim world and promoting international peace.

PART III

The Federation of Pakistan
CHAPTER 1. – THE PRESIDENT

  1. The President.
  2. Oath of President.
  3. Conditions of President’s office.
  4. Term of office of President.
  5. President’s power to grant pardon, etc.
  6. Duties of Prime Minister in relation to President.
  7. Removal or impeachment of President.
  8. President to act on advice, etc.
  9. Chairman or Speaker to act, as or perform functions of, President.

CHAPTER 2. – THE MAJLIS-E-SHOORA (PARLIAMENT).
Composition, Duration and Meetings of
Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

  1. Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  2. National Assembly.
  3. Duration of National Assembly.
  4. Speaker and Deputy Speaker of National Assembly.
  5. Summoning and prorogation of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  6. Voting in Assembly and quorum.
  7. Address by President.
  8. Right to speak in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  9. Dissolution of National Assembly.
  10. The Senate.
  11. Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
  12. Other provisions relating to Senate.

Provisions as to members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

  1. Qualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  2. Disqualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
    63A. Disqualification on grounds of defection, etc.
  3. Vacation of seats.
  4. Oath of members.
  5. Privileges of members, etc.

Procedure Generally

  1. Rules of procedure, etc.
  2. Restriction on discussion in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  3. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

Legislative Procedure

  1. Introduction and passing of Bills.
  2. Mediation Committee.
  3. Procedure at joint sittings.
  4. Procedure with respect to Money Bills.
  5. Federal Government’s consent required for financial measures.
  6. President’s assent to Bills.
  7. Bill not to lapse on prorogation, etc.
  8. Tax to be levied by law only.

Financial Procedure

  1. Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
  2. Custody, etc., of Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
  3. Annual Budget Statement.
  4. Expenditure charged upon Federal Consolidated Fund.
  5. Procedure relating to Annual Budget Statement.
  6. Authentication of schedule of authorized expenditure.
  7. Supplementary and excess grants.
  8. Votes on account.
  9. Power to authorize expenditure when Assembly stands dissolved.
  10. Secretariats of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
  11. Finance Committees.
  12. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances.

CHAPTER 3. – THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

  1. Exercise of executive authority of the Federation.
  2. The Cabinet.
  3. Federal Ministers and Ministers of State.
  4. Advisers.
  5. Prime Minister continuing in office.
  6. Vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister.
  7. (Omitted.)
    96A. (Omitted.)
  8. Extent of executive authority of Federation.
  9. Conferring of functions on subordinate authorities.
  10. Conduct of business of Federal Government.
  11. Attorney-General for Pakistan.

PART IV

Provinces
CHAPTER 1. – THE GOVERNORS

  1. Appointment of Governor.
  2. Oath of office.
  3. Conditions of Governor’s office.
  4. Acting Governor.
  5. Governor to act on advice, etc.

CHAPTER 2. – PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLIES

  1. Constitution of Provincial Assemblies.
  2. Duration of Provincial Assembly.
  3. Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
  4. Summoning and prorogation of Provincial Assembly.
  5. Right of Governor to address Provincial Assembly.
  6. Right to speak in Provincial Assembly.
  7. Dissolution of Provincial Assembly.
  8. Qualifications and disqualifications for membership of Provincial Assembly.
  9. Restriction on discussion in Provincial Assembly.
  10. Provincial Government’s consent required for financial measures.
  11. Governor’s assent to Bills.
  12. Bill not to lapse on prorogation, etc.

Financial Procedure

  1. Provincial Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
  2. Custody, etc., of Provincial Consolidated Fund and Public Account.
  3. Annual Budget Statement.
  4. Expenditure charged upon Provincial Consolidated Fund.
  5. Procedure relating to Annual Budget Statement.
  6. Authentication of schedule of authorized expenditure.
  7. Supplementary and excess grant.
  8. Votes on account.
  9. Power to authorize expenditure when Assembly stands dissolved.
  10. Provisions relating to National Assembly, etc., to apply to Provincial Assembly etc..

Ordinances

  1. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances.

CHAPTER 3. – THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS.

  1. The Provincial Government.
  2. The Cabinet.
  3. Governor to be kept informed.
  4. Provincial Ministers.
  5. Chief Minister continuing in office.
  6. (Omitted)
  7. (Omitted.)
  8. Vote of no-confidence against Chief Minister.
  9. Extent of executive authority of Province.
  10. Conferring of functions on subordinate authorities.
  11. Conduct of business of Provincial Government.
  12. Advocate-General for a Province.
    140A. Local Government.

PART V

Relations Between Federation and Provinces.
CHAPTER 1. – DISTRIBUTION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS.

  1. Extent of Federal and Provincial laws.
  2. Subject-matter of Federal and Provincial laws.
  3. Inconsistency between Federal and Provincial laws.
  4. Power of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to legislate for one or more Provinces by consent.

CHAPTER 2. – ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN
FEDERATION AND PROVINCES.

  1. Power of President to direct Governor to discharge certain functions as his Agent.
  2. Power of Federation to confer powers, etc., on Provinces, in certain cases.
  3. Power of the Provinces to entrust functions to the Federation.
  4. Obligation of Provinces and Federation.
  5. Directions to Provinces in certain cases.
  6. Full faith and credit for public acts, etc.
  7. Inter-Provincial trade.
  8. Acquisition of land for Federal purposes.

CHAPTER 3. – SPECIAL PROVISIONS

152A. National Security Council.

  1. Council of Common Interests.
  2. Functions and rules of procedure.
  3. Complaints as to interference with water supplies.
  4. National Economic Council.
  5. Electricity.
  6. Priority of requirements of natural gas.
  7. Broadcasting and telecasting.

PART VI

Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
CHAPTER 1. – FINANCE

Distribution of Revenues between the
Federation and the Provinces.

  1. National Finance Commission.
  2. Natural gas and hydro-electric power.
  3. Prior sanction of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which Provinces are interested.
  4. Provincial taxes in respect of professions, etc.

Miscellaneous Financial Provisions

  1. Grants out of Consolidated Fund.
  2. Exemption of certain public property from taxation.
    165A. Power of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to impose tax on the income of certain corporations, etc.

CHAPTER 2. – BORROWING AND AUDIT

  1. Borrowing by Federal Government.
  2. Borrowing by Provincial Government.

Audit and Accounts

  1. Auditor-General of Pakistan.
  2. Functions and powers of Auditor-General.
  3. Power of Auditor-General to give directions as to accounts.
  4. Reports of Auditor-General.

CHAPTER 3. – PROPERTY, CONTRACTS,
LIABILITIES AND SUITS

  1. Ownerless property.
  2. Power to acquire property and to make contracts, etc.
  3. Suits and proceedings.

PART VII

The Judicature
CHAPTER 1. – THE COURTS

  1. Establishment and jurisdiction of Courts.
    175A. Appointment of Judges to the Supreme Court, High Court and the Federal Shariat Court.

CHAPTER 2. – THE SUPREME COURT OF PAKISTAN.

  1. Constitution of Supreme Court.
  2. Appointment of Supreme Court Judges.
  3. Oath of office.
  4. Retiring age.
  5. Acting Chief Justice.
  6. Acting Judges.
  7. Appointment of ad hoc Judges.
  8. Seat of the Supreme Court.
  9. Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
  10. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
  11. Advisory jurisdiction.
    186A. Power of Supreme Court to transfer cases.
  12. Issue and execution of processes of Supreme Court.
  13. Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme Court.
  14. Decisions of Supreme Court binding on other Courts.
  15. Action in aid of Supreme Court.
  16. Rules of procedure.

CHAPTER 3. – THE HIGH COURTS

  1. Constitution of High Court.
  2. Appointment of High Court Judges.
  3. Oath of office.
  4. Retiring age.
  5. Acting Chief Justice.
  6. Additional Judges.
  7. Seat of the High Court.
  8. Jurisdiction of High Court.
  9. Transfer of High Court Judges.
  10. Decision of High Court binding on subordinate Courts.
  11. Rules of procedure.
  12. High Court to superintend subordinate Courts.

CHAPTER 3A. – FEDERAL SHARIAT COURT.

203A. Provisions of Chapter to override other provisions of Constitution.
203B. Definitions.
203C. The Federal Shariat Court.
203CC. (Omitted).
203D. Powers, jurisdiction and functions of the Court.
203DD. Revisional and other jurisdiction of the Court.
203E. Powers and procedure of the Court.
203F. Appeal to Supreme Court.
203G. Bar of jurisdiction.
203GG. Decision of Court binding on High Court and courts subordinate to it.
203H. Pending proceedings to continue, etc.
203I. (Omitted)
203J. Power to make rules.

CHAPTER 4. – GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING

TO THE JUDICATURE

  1. Contempt of Court.
  2. Remuneration, etc., of Judges.
  3. Resignation.
  4. Judge not to hold office of profit, etc.
  5. Officers and servants of Courts.
  6. Supreme Judicial Council.
  7. Power of Council to enforce attendance of persons. etc.
  8. Bar of jurisdiction.
  9. Administrative Courts and Tribunals.
    212A. (Omitted)
    212B. Establishment of Special Courts for trial of heinous offences.

PART VIII

Elections
CHAPTER 1. – CHIEF ELECTION COMMISSIONER AND
ELECTION COMMISSIONS.

  1. Chief Election Commissioner.
  2. Commissioner’s oath of office.
  3. Term of office of Commissioner
  4. Commissioner not to hold office of profit.
  5. Acting Commissioner.
  6. Election Commission.
  7. Duties of Commission.
  8. Executive authorities to assist Commission, etc.
  9. Officers and servants.

CHAPTER 2. – ELECTORAL LAWS
AND CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS

  1. Electoral laws.
  2. Bar against double membership.
  3. Time of election and bye-election.
    224A. Resolution by Committee or Election Commission.
  4. Election dispute.
  5. Elections by secret ballot.

PART IX

Islamic Provisions

  1. Provisions relating to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
  2. Composition, etc., of Islamic Council.
  3. Reference by Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), etc. to Islamic Council.
  4. Functions of the Islamic Council.
  5. Rules of procedure.

PART X

Emergency Provisions

  1. Proclamation of emergency on account of war, internal disturbance, etc.
  2. Power to suspend Fundamental Rights, etc., during emergency period.
  3. Power to issue Proclamation in case of failure of Constitutional machinery in a Province.
  4. Proclamation in case of financial emergency.
  5. Revocation of Proclamation, etc.
  6. Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may make laws of indemnity, etc.

PART XI

Amendment of Constitution

  1. Amendment of Constitution.
  2. Constitution amendment Bill.

PART XII

Miscellaneous
CHAPTER 1. – SERVICES

  1. Appointments to service of Pakistan and conditions of service.
  2. Existing rules, etc., to continue.
  3. Public Service Commission.

CHAPTER 2. – ARMED FORCES

  1. Command of Armed Forces.
  2. Oath of Armed Forces.
  3. Functions of Armed Forces.

CHAPTER 3. – TRIBAL AREAS

  1. Tribal Areas.
  2. Administration of Tribal Areas.

CHAPTER 4. – GENERAL

  1. Protection to President, Governor, Minister, etc.
  2. Legal proceedings.
  3. Salaries, allowances, etc., of the President etc.
  4. National language.
  5. Special provisions in relation to major ports and aerodromes.
  6. Maximum limits as to property, etc.
  7. Failure to comply with requirement as to time does not render an act invalid.
  8. Oath of office.
  9. Private armies forbidden.
  10. Provision relating to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  11. Government of territories outside Provinces.
  12. Awards.

CHAPTER 5. – INTERPRETATION

  1. Definitions.
  2. Person acting in office not to be regarded as successor to previous occupant of office, etc.
  3. Gregorian calendar to be used.
  4. Gender and number.
  5. Effect of repeal of laws.

CHAPTER 6. – TITLE, COMMENCEMENT AND REPEAL.

  1. Title of Constitution and commencement.
  2. Repeal.

CHAPTER 7. – TRANSITIONAL

  1. Power of President to remove difficulties.
    267A. Power to remove difficulties.
    267B. Removal of doubt.
  2. Continuance in force, and adaptation of, certain laws.
  3. Validation of laws, acts, etc.
  4. Temporary validation of certain laws, etc.
    270A. Affirmation of President’s Orders, etc.
    270AA. Declaration and continuance of laws etc.
    270B. Elections to be deemed to be held under Constitution.
    270BB. General Elections 2008.
    270C. Oath of office of Judges, etc.
  5. First National Assembly.
  6. First Constitution of Senate.
  7. First Provincial Assembly.
  8. Vesting of property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations.
  9. Continuance in office of persons in service of Pakistan, etc.
  10. Oath of first President.
  11. Transitional financial provisions.
  12. Accounts not audited before commencing day.
  13. Continuance of taxes.
  14. Continuance of Proclamation of Emergency.

ANNEX.-THE OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION

SCHEDULES

FIRST SCHEDULE – Laws exempted from the operation of Article 8(1) and (2)

SECOND SCHEDULE – Election of President.

THIRD SCHEDULE. – Oaths of office.

FOURTH SCHEDULE. – Legislative Lists.

FIFTH SCHEDULE. – Remuneration and terms and conditions of service of Judges.

SIXTH SCHEDULE. – Laws not to be altered, repealed or amended without the previous sanction of the President.

SEVENTH SCHEDULE. – Laws to be amended in the manner provided for amendment of the Constitution.

Top 10 the most popular Rolex Replica watches For Buying Cheap Swiss Watches

rolex replica watches

Any idea of the most popular Rolex watches? We will examine this question, but first let’s look at Rolex itself, it is probably one of the most famous and well-known brands and certainly, it is the most famous watch brand, but this brand simply stands for quality, luxury, and exclusivity is sophisticated.
Over the years, Rolex has introduced a vast array of watches to fill a variety of niches and tastes, all with features and styles that occupy a unique place in the magnificent Rolex collection. So, which are the most popular replica Rolex watches? We have found out what are the 10 most popular Rolex watches based on our search results online.

  1. Rolex Daytona (steel) watches Rolex Daytona watches
    Rolex Daytona in steel is one of the most popular Rolex models. The waiting list is said to be over 10 years! But this was not always the case. In the very early days, the Rolex Daytona was a watch that sat on the shelves of watch dealers and would be sold at a discount. Things are very different now, and you’ll be lucky to get one from an authorized dealer for more than twice the market price of the retail price. For those with a passion for driving and speed, it can be considered the ultimate tool watch. Its three sub-dials make it instantly recognizable and you won’t regret adding it to your collection.
  2. Rolex Submariner (Steel)Rolex Submariner
    The steel Rolex Submariner with its black dial and bezel has to be one of the most popular Rolex models. Since its creation in 1953, this diving watch that unlocks the deep sea has proven to be a hit with watch enthusiasts all over the world. The Rolex Diver was the first watch to be water-resistant to 100 meters, although I suspect that most of its wearers won’t see more than a splash in the shower as they prepare for their day at the office.
  3. Rolex Air-King Popular Watch Rolex Air-King
    The most famous Swiss brand today, Rolex actually started in London, only to move to Geneva in the 1920s, which is little known. 1945 saw the launch of the Air-King, a tribute to the British pilots of the Second World War, something Rolex has not forgotten. It is one of the least changed models in the Rolex collection, having only recently changed its size for the first time since its introduction, and is designed to be just right, and as legible as possible when engaging the enemy in the air. While this feature is unlikely to be of much use today, it makes the watch extremely stylish and usable, with a bold face in black on white and precisely detailed numerals. As an added bonus, the model is actually a variant of the ninth-largest Rolex, the Oyster Perpetual Calendar, which means it’s one of the more accessible watches in the replica Rolex family. So here we are, the Rolex Air-king is one of the most popular Rolex watches.
  4. Rolex Oyster Perpetual
    While most other Rolex models are themed around bells and whistles that fit a specific niche in their profession or activity, the Oyster Perpetual harks back even further to the brand’s original purpose: to produce accurate self-winding timepieces. Sometimes considered “entry-level”, the Rolex is one of the oldest brands, introduced in 1926, and it shares the same function of a Rolex watch, which is to keep time very precisely. While it may lack the features of more expensive models, its simplicity means it is very light and practical for everyday use, and it is available in a wide range of colors to suit any style. It will fit nicely into any outfit you choose, which is a refreshing change from other Rolex models that might be accused of dictating the rest of your outfit. It’s a great all-around watch that will last and adapt to your lifestyle, which is why it makes the list of the top 10 most popular Rolex watches.
  5. Rolex Ocean Voyager
    Perhaps the third brand you’ll mention in Rolex’s beginner’s guide with explorers and divers, the Sea-Dweller is the true business high-end watch of the three, retaining its signature black and silver look in all versions. While other fake Rolex watches have appeared on the wrists of soccer players set with diamonds, this one is forged only in steel and does what it does best. Staying healthy at depths of over 4,000 feet. This is thanks to ingenious technology and robust thickness, as the patented pressure relief valve allows the watch to balance itself like a real diver, to prevent excessive internal pressure from damaging the mechanism. It also boasts the famous super case found on the GMT-Master II, making it even harder to crush at the depths of the sea. Its style reflects this ability, being unpretentious and heavy in almost every area, but if it’s ruggedness and masculinity you’re after, then this is the watch for you.
  6. Rolex Yacht-Master Popular Watches
    While many of Rolex’s most popular watches are designed around a niche, the Yacht-Master is probably the most adaptable, which is probably why it appears on this list. Not only does it feature the brand’s first rubber strap, designed to bend and stay tight even in rough seas and strenuous activity, it is also the first Rolex to be available in three separate sizes. While Rolex has often made designs passed down through generations a hallmark of the brand, in this case, the company brought new life to the Yacht-Master with an overhaul that completely redesigned the Everose case and Cerachrom bezel. The popularity of the watch rose further as new owners and collectors sought out this novelty.
  7. Rolex GMT-Master II (Pepsi) Rolex GMT-Master II
    Rolex tends to be activity-based, and as a whole, the travel-oriented GMT-master series is probably second only to the Submariner in terms of fame, so it’s odd that the most popular of these is a variation on the classic design. The Rolex GMT Master II, also known as the Pepsi, is much the same in design as its brethren, known for being chunky to accommodate a complex two-handed system, but it features a distinctive red and blue half-rimmed bezel that resembles the logo of the eponymous soda brand. The official name comes from its innovative and complex hands, which run completely separately to show both local time and 24-hour time – much appreciated by travelers accustomed to frequently flipping time zones. Rolex took a keen interest in the GMT-Master, producing several colorful designs, which may account for its popularity.
  8. Rolex Datejust watch Rolex Datejust
    The Datejust may be the closest thing a top brand like Rolex has to a “workhorse” timepiece, but because of its long history and iconic status, you’re most likely to see it on people’s wrists. When the Datejust was introduced in 1945 as the world’s first automatic water-resistant watch with a date function, it took the world by storm, and since then, it has served as one of the brand’s most famous. After that, it has tenaciously maintained its position at the top of the popularity charts as one of the Rolex brand’s most famous products. While its initial popularity may be attributed to its unique features, it may have stuck around because it is so versatile. Whether you prefer precious and non-precious metal models, or whether you prefer diamond-encrusted models, there is a Datejust that will complement your style.
  9. Rolex Day-Date President Collection Most Popular Watches
    Another Rolex model that has made a splash due to its association with the rich and famous, the Day-Date is said to have been worn by more world leaders than any other brand. As the name suggests, it is one of the first swiss replica watches on the market that can display the date by month and day of the week, and it is available in several different metals, making it an ideal gift. Depending on your budget, you can choose from the top-end 18-carat gold and 950 platinum models, meaning the sky really is the limit when it comes to deciding how much you want to spend.
  10. Rolex Cosmograph Daytona GoldThe most popular watch Rolex Daytona
    If it weren’t for Rolex, the story behind the Cosmograph Daytona would be the ultimate rags-to-riches story, but initially, the Cosmograph was the closest thing the brand watch had to a failure. The Cosmograph received less publicity than the hugely popular Submariner, but it was the only Rolex that retailers would discount, so it was worn on the wrists of rising stars in the sports and film worlds, raising its profile. Various models over the years have varied in stylistic detail, but the brand’s hallmark is its sub-dials on the face and thin, subtle hands and numerals. While the stainless steel models are the most sought-after, the gold models win out, purely because they are the only ones that do not have a waiting list measured in years.
    The great thing about Rolex replica watches is that they are essentially timeless, so different models and styles are always competing with each other as fashions come and go. What will always remain the same, however, is the amazing timekeeping ability that has made them famous and the fact that no matter which model you choose, you will have a nice collector’s piece.

The Ultimate Breitling Superocean Buying Guide

Breitling may be best known for its ties to the world of aviation, but its historical ties to the sea also date from 1957 with the Superocean collection. It was launched to compete with Omega’s first Seamaster, released the same year, as well as the Blancpain Fifty Fathoms and the Rolex Submariner some years earlier. It was obviously a hard ask for Breitling to challenge these three dive watch legends, but the Superocean’s 200-meter water-resistance rating is on par with Omega and Rolex and more than double the depth rating of the original Blancpain. The Breitling Superocean has always been with us, often adapted and updated, but never abandoning its professional dive watch features. Technically speaking, the 36 mm is marketed as a ladies’ watch, while the entry-level model for men is the 42 mm automatic.
Inside is the Breitling Caliber 17, which is based on the tried-and-tested ETA 2824-2. A completely reliable, unadorned engine, it offers a 38-hour reserve, a frequency of 28,800 VPH, and because it is a commonly used third-party movement, you can have it serviced by any watchmaker of your choice without any problems. Perhaps best of all, even the “least” water-resistant models are capable of reaching a depth of 200 meters, with the most dive-friendly models reaching up to 2,000 meters. You may never need such high water resistance, but you would certainly be hard-pressed to find anything less.
The Breitling Superocean Automatic is available in a range of different dial colors, with matching stainless steel straps, color-matched rubber straps, or nylon NATO straps made from recycled plastic. At retail, steel straps are available for $500, but not all models are available with all strap/bracelet options. The Breitling Superocean Automatic is an attractive alternative to a regular dive watch, a very successful and good-looking model that comes in enough different sizes and colors to fit every wrist.

Gorgeous Rolex Watches for Women Who Dive

As a diver, you need a highly functional watch. As a Rolex fan, you want a watch that looks as good as it performs. Thankfully, there are several Rolex dive watches that are designed for women, which means you can have both style and substance. We should mention that Rolex sells all of its dive watches as men’s watches, so you won’t find any dive models grouped in the Rolex women’s watches on the brand’s website. However, that certainly won’t stop female customers from wearing them! Rolex has dive replica watches in a variety of case sizes and materials.
With a variety of case sizes and materials to choose from, many women will feel comfortable wearing a Rolex dive watch, no matter how much the brand advertises it. While replica Rolex has a history of making dive watches dating back to the 1950s, we highlight newer models to ensure you the best performance and reliability underwater.
The Rolex Sea-Dweller is based heavily on the Submariner design, but it includes features for saturation divers. For example, there is a helium vent valve that allows any breathing mixture that may have seeped into the watch to be automatically expelled in a controlled manner. In addition to this, the Rolex Sea-Dweller has a deeper water-resistance rating than the Submariner’s already adequate depth rating.
There are several distinct differences between the current and previous Sea-Dweller watches that will undoubtedly influence your decision. First, the now-discontinued Sea-Dweller ref. 116600 has a 40mm case and is only available in stainless steel. The model also does not include the Cyclops date magnifier on the crystal and uses the 3135 movements with a 48-hour power reserve.
Common to both generations of the Rolex Sea-Dweller is a black Cerachrom bezel with a full 60-minute scale, a black dial with Chromalight luminescence, and an Oyster bracelet with two separate extension systems that can be extended to 27mm to accommodate thick diving suits.
After swimming for 11 hours in the frigid waters between France and England, Mercedes Gleitze’s Rolex Oyster was still in “perfect working order”. This event paves the way for future fake Rolex dive watches, as the brand continues to strive to improve the water resistance and performance of its watches.

Popular Omega Debuts New Precious Metal Bronze Alloy

One of my favorite things about Omega is that the brand is always tinkering. Always turning knobs, always experimenting. Sometimes in the pursuit of producing longer-lasting products, sometimes it feels like tinkering just for the sake of tinkering. However, since updates are often made in the transition from generation to generation, they are also rarely made without value or at least with the end consumer in mind.
The result is an amber-colored 9-carat gold watch that uses less than half the amount of solid gold of the comparable 18-carat Seamaster 300. As a result, the fake watch is only slightly heavier relative to its steel counterpart, and definitely lacks that very tactile “oh wow” factor that traditional solid gold divers elicit on the wrist. In a particularly clever twist, the bronze-gold case frames a brown dial that is subtly pre-aged with CuSn8, a more traditional bronze alloy used in many dive watch cases – just not this one.

Omega has wisely retained the visual identity of the 2014 Seamaster 300 – after all, this is the brand’s first truly modern ode to its single most important diving benchmark, launched in 1957. As a result, some of the codes of the model have naturally been retained – the sandwich dial, the straight lugs, the “wide arrow” handset, and the flat bracelet.
Perhaps the biggest visual update to the replica Rolex watch, and the difference from the original material, is the thinner bezel profile – an adjustment that is paired with a reduction in dial text that greatly increases the overall dial opening. And on the two stainless steel versions, the bezel itself is no longer liquid metal, but highly scratch-resistant anodized aluminum – not unlike what we saw in the “No Time to Die” seahorse in late 2019. The bronze-gold variant gets a dark ceramic bezel insert. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the end links of the lugs and bracelet are also back on the drawing board.
It is known to be a slightly thicker movement when it comes to showing up in some of the replica Omega’s larger modern watches, but personally, I prefer the 8900 series over the 8800 series movement because of the extra bit of power reserve and the aforementioned fast setting.

The Rolex Daytona 116500LN: A Collector’s Guide

Rolex Daytona

The Rolex Daytona has been around for about 60 years. Since its introduction, it has undergone many improvements and iterations, such as the Ref. 116500LN. Many collectors and enthusiasts esteem this model for its classic look. It is also an example of all luxury watches with new technological advances.
Even before the launch of the replica Rolex Cosmonaut Daytona 116500LN in 2016, many people were already anticipating the advances it might have, and waiting lists around the world grew rapidly. To this day, many watch enthusiasts regard this timepiece as one of Rolex’s best offers yet.
When the Rolex Daytona 116500LN was finally launched at Baselworld 2016, the hype surrounding it never died down. This was for a number of reasons. For example, the classic stainless steel case and the addition of Cerachrom, Rolex’s proprietary high-tech material.
Let’s take a closer look at what Rolex’s ultimate watch has to offer. Learn more about why it remains the premier choice for luxury sports watches.
The History of the Rolex Daytona
Technically speaking, the Rolex Cosmograph Daytona dates back even before the 1960s. Let’s take a quick look at the history of this iconic watch.
The Rolex Daytona watch began in 1955when the Ref. 6234 was introduced. It was the brand’s first chronograph and at the time, it wasn’t very popular. Not many people found a use for a chronograph and everyone still preferred the traditional 3-hand watch. Since then, Rolex replica has continued to produce chronographs for a very niche market.
The Rolex Cosmograph Daytona
At 36.5 mm, the Cosmograph Daytona is the largest in the brand’s catalog. It is made entirely for motorsports, that is why it has a tachymeter bezel. This is also the first time that the word “Cosmograph” appears on the dial, under the brand name and logo at 12 o’clock. There were other models with the word “Daytona” above the dial at 6 o’clock.
Since then, the Cosmograph Daytona has continued to improve over the years, and in 2000, Rolex introduced the third generation of Daytona watches, which featured an incredibly significant improvement. Rolex began using its own in-house chronograph movement in the third generation of Rolex Daytona replica watches.
This watch, the Ref. 116500LN, is also from this generation. The easiest way to identify which generation of the watch is by its reference number. The third generation of Rolex Daytona watches has a six-digit reference number. Depending on the bezel of the watch, the numbers should be followed by letters.
The first Daytona ever to have a Cerachrom bezel was an 18k Everose gold version. It also became the first fake Rolex watch to have a single-piece Cerachrom bezel instead of an insert. It was the first single-piece ceramic to have the crystal in place.
With the introduction of the Ref. 116500LN, Rolex finally added the Cerachrom bezel feature to the stainless steel model. With that said, let’s take a closer look at the Rolex Cosmograph Daytona Ref. 116500LN.

2021 New Testing the TAG Heuer Monaco Calibre Heuer 02

Introduced in 1969, the Monaco racing watch was one of the world’s first automatic chronographs, with its blue sunburst dial and contrasting silvered counters, red hands, and square shape with a wide sapphire crystal and faceted edges, popular with Monaco watch enthusiasts. The latest version of the TAG Heuer Monaco Calibre Heuer 02, our test fake watch, has the same visual characteristics, all of which TAG Heuer has refined from the earlier Monaco Calibre 12 model. The once-flat lugs are now slightly recessed, giving the design more depth and interest.
Another update: the symmetrical arrangement now shows elapsed minutes and hours, rather than minutes and seconds. The running second’s indication is now located at 6 o’clock – a clever solution, even though the second’s hand sweeps past the date window for several seconds each minute. With the new movement, TAG Heuer has designed a clear display layout, but this is a compromise. This includes the small seconds display at 6 o’clock, which requires the word “automatic” to be moved up and placed between the two gears.
Now, for the first time, the Monaco Chronograph is powered by a truly in-house movement. This innovation actually offers the user a real advantage. And the new movement visually complements Monaco with its modern, high-tech look, its generous 31 mm diameter, and the large sapphire crystal on the case-back.
The latest variant of this prestigious replica watch shows its strengths both in terms of finish and operation. The interestingly shaped pushers with protective rings are easy to use thanks to the chronograph’s column-wheel control, while the vertical clutch ensures a quick and smooth start of the stopwatch hand. In addition, the alligator strap with its single-sided safety folding clasp opens and closes easily and is adjusted to the perfect length by means of an integrated clamping mechanism.
Since all the positive features of the previous Monaco models remain unchanged and the new movement offers many additional upgrades, we can conclude that anyone who does not mind the small seconds sub-dial at 6 o’clock and the re-positioning of the word “Automatic” will consider this newly manufactured watch to be the best Monaco ever made.

New Rolex Watches and Discontinued Models from Watches and Wonders

Just like the GMT-Master II collection, the Rolex Sky-Dweller collection has added some additional strap options. So far, all Sky-Dweller watches have come with Oyster or Oysterflex straps, with a few discontinued solid gold models also featuring leather straps. Interestingly, the Jubilee straps are only available on the two steel and gold models, and while their reference numbers have not been updated, the alternative straps result in a markedly different overall aesthetic. New Rolex Watches
The replica Rolex Sky-Dweller has been steadily growing since it first appeared in 2012, and in recent years, the stainless steel and white gold models with blue dials have quickly jumped to the forefront as fan favorites. The blue dial is only found on the White Rolesor with reference number 326934, but since the replica watch is now available in both bracelet styles, it will be interesting to see if one configuration ends up being significantly more in demand than the other.
It’s also worth noting that demand for the blue dial Sky-Dweller has far outstripped supply at the retail level, with almost every retailer having a waiting list for the watch. Potential buyers will inevitably have a preference regarding bracelet style, and with the blue dial now spread across two different configurations of the model, it’s likely that the wait for the version you choose will only be longer.
While the biggest news for Rolex in 2021 is about the Explorer collection and the new bracelet options for the stainless steel GMT-Master II and Rolesor Sky-Dweller, it’s worth noting that Rolex has also added some additional dial options to the Daytona and Datejust collections.
For the Datejust, fake Rolex has added some additional dial options, some of which feature unique designs. One dial features a palm motif that draws inspiration from the tropical forest, and a fluted variation designed to complement some of Rolex’s signature styles.
Finally, there are some new options for the Day-Date collection. Some are fairly standard, as if they should have been in the collection long ago – such as the white gold Day-Date 40 with its slate dial with classic baton markers, or the stellar gold Day-Date 36 with its white Roman dial and diamond bezel. Perhaps the most notable new offering, however, is a new stone dial with a slice of Eisenkiel on its face. In the selected Stellar Gold Rolex President, the natural tones of the minerals combine perfectly with the warm tones of Rolex’s proprietary rose gold alloy.

The New Omega Seamaster 300

In the early hours of the morning, OMEGA released a string of new products. Among them is a vintage-inspired Seamaster that pays homage to the brand’s first dive replica watches from the 1950s and 1960s.
This is the new OMEGA Seamaster 300. It has the same old-school charm, with the same blue and black dial variant, only closer in spirit and aesthetics to the original.
This is not the first time Omega has created a pseudo-retrospective Seamaster. In fact, the model it replaces is just that. This new version of the watch is, well, more retro. The upcoming model combines the look of the Seamaster from the 1950s with 21st-century features. For starters, it features the Master Co-Axial Chronometer stamped on the bottom of the dial and an ultra-modern ceramic bezel.
This new Seamaster 300 is a true tribute in many ways, forgoing some of the modern stylings of its predecessor in order to be more faithful to the original 1957 model. But it is not a 1:1 replica. As a matter of fact, this new watch in many ways appears older than the first Seamaster.
The dial construction is one of the main differences between the old and the new. According to OMEGA, the dial is made up of two plates. The first plate has blue luminous Super-LumiNova applied, while the top plate has cutouts for indications and numerals. This is effectively a sandwich-style dial, but it doesn’t end there. The markers are recessed and filled with a healthy dose of luminescent material. OMEGA replica had used “open Arabic” numerals on the Seamaster 300 in the 1960s.
Arguably the biggest change here is the simplicity of the dial design. Gone is the dial text of the reference movement. In its place is the classic text “Seamaster 300”. The actual dial size is larger, with an opening of 30.4 mm, compared to 29.5 mm before. The fake watch is also thinner than the outgoing model.
The bezel should be familiar, as it is actually identical – in appearance – to the outgoing model. According to OMEGA, the anodizing process used makes the surface much harder and more scratch-resistant than the standard aluminum insert. The watch maintains its 41 mm size. The lugs are 21 mm wide and the bracelet tapers to 16 mm at the clasp. OMEGA has also made a slight adjustment to the bracelet design. Instead of polishing the center link, it has been brushed – the outer links have been polished.

News of 1950s Heuer Autavia Dashboard Stopwatch

I was a long-time reader of this site before joining the vintage team here. I remember reading about TAG Heuer dashboard timers in those early years. The great and powerful Eric Wind highlighted a few sets back in 2014, here and here. Immediately, I was drawn to these far more than any other stopwatch or pocket watch that had ever worn my mid-2012 Macbook Pro. Quickly realizing that I didn’t have a car to go to the track, the question became. For most people, are these now only available as desk clocks?
That’s right: In my dream kitchen, there are one or two replica TAG Heuer dashboard timers mounted right in the range. The location is up to you, but the watch can always go right to the pot filler (which is all the rage in kitchen construction these days), integrated into the stove knob dashboard if you’ve selected your Viking mode modifications in mind, or even off to one side of the backsplash. The possibilities are endless, sort of. No matter where you put it, your pasta should always be perfectly al dente and your eggs should be cooked to perfection with this TAG Heuer dashboard stopwatch transformed into a kitchen stopwatch. Does the pot never boil? No worries, just keep an eye on your vintage TAG Heuer stopwatch while the water boils. Meanwhile, you’ll be the coolest house on the block. I’m imagining a “getting with the times” scenario where neighborhood kitchens are fitted with TAG Heuer stopwatches, and that’s the kind of neighborhood I like.
As for the Patek Philippe Ref. 3587/2 ‘Beta 21’, it’s big, it’s bold, and of course, it’s solid gold. This Beta 21 is just different. One of the reasons I decided to write about this watch this week is that it is so unique and it gives a special satisfaction on the wrist. When I hold this watch in my hand, I can’t help but feel empowered. Then, when I clasp it on my wrist, it’s unlike any other replica Rolex watch I’ve ever worn.
When I saw the Beta 21, the first thing I noticed was the gold bracelet with holes – these are synonymous with that model. Collectors refer to this style of the bracelet as “Swiss cheese” because of the holes, which are very fitting. Patek Philippe made different iterations of the Beta 21, and even a few different variants, such as our reference 3587 here, which features an integrated bracelet and a champagne-colored dial, giving it an all-gold feel that is not to be missed. The Beta 21 movement was created as a piece of collaboration between several different companies and is used in several Rolex replica watches and brands. However, when I hear Beta 21, I think of Patek Philippe, which makes this watch particularly special. Hurry to the store and see it for yourself.

pld 1994 sc 23

pld 1994 sc 23

NASRULLAH KHAN HENJRA

Versus

GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

Per Saad Saood Jan, J.
(a) Constitution of Pakistan, 1973, Articles, Preamble, 15 and Federal Legislative List, Part I, item No. 3

It therefore seems that Article 15 was never intended to afford protection against extradition to citizens who are accused of serious crimes in other countries. This view finds support from the fact that item No. 3 of the Federal Legislative List, Part I, of the Constitution specifically empowers the Parliament to make laws on the subject of extradition including the surrender of criminals and accused persons to Governments outside Pakistan. The specific conferment of the power on the Parliament to make laws on the subject of extradition effectively refutes the contention that the Constitution-makers had adopted the practice of the civil law countries with regard to refusal to deport their own nationals for trial in foreign lands. The contention that the legislation enacted in pursuance of this item must be confined to non-citizens is unacceptable; a non-citizen can at any time be deported from Pakistan and in any event, considering the national commitment of Pakistan on the international plane, as avowed in the Objectives Resolution, there is hardly any justification for drawing a distinction between the citizens and non-citizens in this regard. It is therefore difficult to hold that the Act is void on account of its conflict with Article 15 of the Constitution. [pp. 27 &28]A

p l d 2010 sc 61

p l d 2010 sc 61

CHIEF JUSTICE OF PAKISTAN IFTIKHAR MUHAMMAD CHAUDHRY

Versus

PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN THROUGH SECRETARY AND OTEHRS

Per Khalil-ur-Rehman Remady, J-

Constitution of Pakistan(1973) Arts. 209, 211 & 184-

Needless to say that having heard the learned counsel for the parties at some length; having benefited immensely from the invaluable assistance rendered by them, and for detailed reasons to be recorded later about all the questions agitated before us, this Court, passed the following judgment on July 20, 2007 :-

   "For detailed reasons to be recorded later, the following issues arising out of this petition are decided as under :-

(1) MAINTAINABILITY OF C.O.P NO. 21 OF 2007 FILED UNDER ARTICLE 184(3) OF THE CONSTITUTION

This petition is unanimously declared to be maintainable.

(II) VALIDITY OF THE DIRECTION (THE REFERENCE) ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT UNDER ARTICLE 209(5) OF THE CONSTITUTION.

By a majority of10 to 3 (Faqir Muhammd Khokhar, J., . Javed Buttar, J and Saiyed Saeed Ashhad, J, dissenting), the said direction (the Reference) in question dated March 9, 2007, for separate reasons to be recorded by the Hon. Judges so desiring is set aside.

(III) VIRES OF JUDGES (COMPULSORY LEAVE) ORDER BEING PRESIDENT’S ORDER NO. 27 OF 1970 AND THE CONSEQUENT VALIITY OF THE ORDER DATED15-3-2007PASSED BY THE PRESIDENT DIRECTING THAT THE CJP SHALL BE ON LEAVE

The said president’s order No. 27 of 1970 is unanimously declared as ultra vires of the Constitution ad consequently the said order of the President dated 15-3-2007 is also, unanimously declared to have been passed without lawful authority.

(IV VALIDITY OF THE ORDER OF THE PRESIDENT DATRED9-3-2007AND OF THE ORDER OF THE SAME DATE OF THE SUPREME JUDICIAL COUNCIL RESTRAINING THE CJP FROM ACTING AS A JUDGE OF THE SUPREME COURT AND/OR CHIEF JUSTICE OF PAKISTAN

Both these orders are, unanimously, set aside as being illegal. However, since according to the minority view on the question of the validity of the direction (the Reference) in question, the said Reference had been competently filed by the President, therefore, this Court could pass a restraining order under Article 184(3) read with Article 187 of the Constitution.

(V) VALIDITY OF THE APPOINTMENT OF THE HON’BLE ACTING CHEF JUSTICE OFPAKISTANIN VIEW OF THE ANNULMENT OF THE TWO RESTRAINING ORDERS AND THE COMPULSORY LEAVE ORDER IN RESPECT OF THE CJP

The appointments in question of the Hon’ble Acting Chief Justice of Pakistan vide notification dated9-3-2007and the notification dated22-3-2007are, unanimously, declared to have been made without lawful authority. However, this invalidity shall not affect the ordinary working of the Supreme Court or the discharge of any other Constitutional and/or legal obligations by the Hon’ble Acting Chief Justice of Pakistan during the period in question and this declaration is so made by applying the defacto doctrine.

(VI) ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE HON’BLE CHIEF JUSTIE OFPAKISTAN

It has never been anybody’s case before us that the Chief Justice of Pakistan was not accountable. The same issue, therefore, does not require any adjudication.

All other legal and Constitutional issues raised before us shall be answered in due course through the detailed judgment/judgments to follow.

ORDER OF THE COURT

By majority of 10 to 3 (Faqir Muhammad Khokhar, J., M. Javed Buttar, J, and Saiyed Saeed Ashhad, J, dissenting), this Constitution Original Petition NO. 21 of 2007 filed by Mr. Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, the Chief Justice of Pakistan, is allowed as a result whereof the above-mentioned direction (the Reference) of the President dated March 9, 2007is set aside. As a further consequence thereof, the petitioner CJP shall be deemed to be holding the said office and shall always be deemed to have been so holding the same.

The other connected petitions shall be listed before the appropriate benches, in due course, for their disposal in accordance with law.”

For this petition to be competent, what would, therefore be required to be shown would be that it disclosed a breach of a Fundamental Right; sought repair of the said breach and the consequent enforcement of the said right and further and more importantly that the matter was not one which related only to an individual’s private grievance but was one of public importance. We would, therefore, have to find out whether the petition in hand met the said standards.

The petitioner before us is the holder of one of the top five constitutional offices in the country and alleges his illegal confinement in the President’s Camp Office for about five hours; complains of his subsequent detention, along with his wife and children, for about four days and having been so kept, in-communicado; claims a gross violation not only of the privacy of his home at the hands of some unscrupulous aliens but also of a grave and unspeakable offence to his dignity and asserts also that all this had been done to him to manoeuvre his illegal removal from his office in gross violation of the Constitutional guarantees. Further alleges that his trial by a not legally composed forum comprising also of some members who had a serious bias against him and then the forum proceeding against him in a manner which could not be said to be fair transparent, just and lawful, was offensive of the protection which the Constitution had guaranteed to him.

These grievances, the details of which have been noticed in the earlier part of this judgment, might at the initial glance appear only to be individualistic in nature and personal to the petitioner. But then, he is the Chief Justice of Pakistan; the head of the national judicature and thus a symbol of justice and of the independence of the country’s judiciary. The allegedly contemptible exercise in question not having been directed only against the person for the petitioner but being allegedly a device to remove the Chief Justice of Pakistan from his office in a manner not permitted by the Constitution, demonstrated that the matter in question was no longer a mere private affair of an individual by the name of Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry but wad much more.

The questions which would, therefore, emerge for determination, amongst other, would be as to what were the powers available with the executive qua the judiciary; whether a power could be conceded to executive to suspend a Judge of a Superior Court of to restrain him from performing the judicial or even administrative obligations cast on him by the Constitution; could the President send such a Judge, leave alone the Chief Justice of the country, on forced leave; was the President’s Order No. 27 of 1970 not offensive of the Constitutional security guaranteed to the Judges of the Superior Courts and thus ultra vires of the Constitution; was the Supreme Judicial Council a forum competent to try the Chief Justice of Pakistan ; was free access to justice and a trial by a valid, independent and an un-biased forum in a fair and a transparent manner not a fundamental right guaranteed to the people; was the manner in which the head of the national judiciary was sought to be removed from office, a proper, a lawful and a bona fide act on the part of the executive or was it not an act rooted in malice and for a collateral purposes; was the whole exercise in question not an offensive encroachment upon the Constitutional pledge about the independence of judiciary thus offending against the right of the people to ask for a judiciary which could guarantee quality justice for all.

The critical indispensability of dispensation of justice in a society, be it between men and men or between the governor and the governed, could never be over-emphasized. The fact that it is justice and justice alone which cold ensure peace in a society and its consequent strength, security and solidarity, was one of the serious lessons taught to the civilization by its history. And history, be it ancient, biblical, medieval or contemporary also tells us that societies sans justice had never bee permitted to pollute this planet for very long and had either to reform themselves paying heavy costs usually in blood or had else been wiped off the face of this earth. The French, the Russian, the Chinese and more recently, the Iranian revolution are some such lessons. It is perhaps for this very reason that doing of justice is conceivably the most repeated Quranic Command after ‘SALAAT’ and ‘ZAKKAT’. And it is also for the same cause that ‘Right of Access to Justice’ which is inconceivable in the absence of an independent and impartial judiciary, was by now a well-established and a universally accepted human right an would be evident, inter alia, from Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and from Article 14 of the United Nations Convention on Criminal and Political Rights and which right was now being secured by the people in different State by making requisite provisions in their respective Constitutions.

The passionate desire and the consequent determination of the people of Pakistan to establish an independent judiciary to ensure justice and the resultant security, peace and prosperity for themselves, is manifested through the Objectives Resolution which is now a substantive part of our Constitution being Article 2-A thereof and Articles 4, 9, 14, 25, 175, 179 and some others stand incorporated in our Constitution towards the attainment of the same declared and sacred objective.

The above-mentioned Article 9 of the Constitution guarantees protection of one’s life. All the judges and jurists in different ages and from different jurisdictions have been one in saying that the word ‘LIFE’ protected and assured by a various constitutions could never be understood to have been used in a limited or a restricted sense and therefore, did not mean jut the vegetative and the animal life of a man or his mere existence from conception to death. This word had, in fact, to be understood in its widest and fullest context to include all such rights, amenities and facilities which were necessary and essential for the enjoyment of a free, proper, comfortable, clean and peaceful life. When confronted with concrete situations, it was held through various judgments from various countries that the right to live meant the right to live with dignity and honour and included rights such as the right to proper health-care, the right to proper food and nutrition, the right to proper clothing, the right to education, the right to shelter, the right to earn one’s livelihood and even a right to a clean atmosphere and an un-polluted environment. And in some other cases, the nuisance created by municipal sewage, industrial affluents and the hazards caused by a magnetic field produced by high tension electricity wires, were found to be an interference with the enjoyment of one’s right to life. In yet another case from Indian jurisdiction, even access to proper roads for people living in hilly areas was held to be an essential part of the right to life. In more than one cases from our own jurisdiction, it was also declared that since right to live in peace in a just and a fair environment was inherent in the right to life, therefore, the right of access to justice was a well recognized and an inviolable Fundamental Right enshrined in Article 9 of the Constitution and its denial, an infringement of the said right. As a necessary consequence, it was further held that since access to justice was inconceivable and would be a mere farce and mirage in the absence of an independent judiciary guaranteeing impartial, fair and a just adjudicatory mechanism, therefore, the demand for a judiciary which was free of executive influence and pressures; was not manipulatable and which was not a subservient judiciary, was also an integral part and an indispensable ingredient of the said Fundamental Right of access to justice.

While endorsing these views, let me also add that the courts set up by the Constitution or under its authority have been so established not just as a means of securing bread and butter for the members of the bench or of the Bar but to provide justice to the people and the resultant peace in the society and it is thus they, who are the actual stake-holders and for whose benefit and welfare, the judicial system stands created. The judiciary was, therefore, an affair of the public; any offence to its independence would be an encroachment on the right of the people to access justice and finally that the security of service and of the tenure of the Judges was critical for the said independence.

I would, therefore, conclude and hold that access to justice was a Fundamental Right which the Constitution had guaranteed to the people; that the existence of an independent and vibrant judiciary was indispensable and crucial for the enjoyment of the said constitutional assurance and in the absence thereof, this right would be a mere illusion; that without security to the Judges of the Superior Courts vis-à-vis, inter alia, their service and the tenure thereof, the independence of judiciary would be a mere delusion and a chimera; that an allegedly illegal and un-constitutional interference with the tenure of office of the Head of the national judiciary would not be just an injury personal to the Chief Justice of Pakistan but would, in fact, be a serious assault on the said assured Fundamental Right of the public at large and thus of public importance. The blood-soaked, unprecedented agitation by the national Bar and by the people of Pakistan which commenced immediately afterthe 9th of March, 2007and which, unfortunately, also witnessed the loss of at least sixty innocent human lives at different occasions in different cities of the country, leaves hardly any room for proof that the matter was one of public importance.

Consequently, it is declared that this petition and the twenty four connected petitions which had also been heard by us vis-à-vis their maintainability, satisfy all the conditions and requirements envisaged by Article 184(3) of the Constitution and are, therefore, competent. I may add another reason for the maintainability of such a petition in such like situation. It is not known that when disciplinary proceedings were taken even against a peon in the public service and even if such proceedings resulted in the most minor of all actions i.e. a censure, he had a right of appeal and in fact had remedies, upto this Court. But here is a public servant who is the Head of the national Judicature and who stands blessed with constitutional guarantees about his service, when he is removed from his office either for misconduct or on account of his mental or physical incapacity, he is left high and dry and without a door that he could knock at for seeking justice for a Mr. Justice. Providing a remedy to any one who had suffered a wrong was one of the basic norms of justice. Reference may be made to REGISTRAR, SUPREME COURT OF PAKISTAN, ISLAMABAD V. QAZI WALI MUHAMAMD (1997 SCMR 141) AND MUHAMMAD MUBEEN-US-SALAM AND OTHERS V. FEDERATION FO PAKISTAN THROUGH SECRETARY, MINISTRY OF DEFENCE AND OTHERS (PLD 2006 SC 602. Since the law does not provide any remedy to a Superior Court Judge who is removed from office, therefore, Article 184(3) of the Constitution was the only mode, in appropriate cases of extra-ordinary nature of the kind in hand, through which such a Judge could seek redress of his grievances.

With these facts and circumstances being available on record, when we juxtapose the two versions i.e. the claim of the CPP that after the President had left the meeting at about 12:30 p.m., he had been kept there in captivity till his denudation had been fully accomplished through installation of Mr. Justice Javed Iqbal as the Acting Chief Justice of Pakistan at 5-03 p.m. and the contrary assertion of the respondents that the CJP was sitting in the Army House of his own pleasure and free will enjoying and appreciating the ‘MATERIAL’ collected against him and had opted to leave the place after 5 p.m. only after he stood stripped of his office, the conclusion is inevitable that it was the CJP’s version which was more plausible and consequently believable and that the claim to the contrary was implausible and unbelievable and we hold accordingly.

The CJP’s claim about the treatment meted out to him, to his lady-wife and children; to the members of his personal staff and even to his domestic servants has been noticed, in some detail, in the opening parts of this judgment. It may, however, be recapitulated that it was the case of the CJP that before he left the Army House/the President’s Camp Office, he had been stripped of all vestiges of his office; that on his way home he had been intercepted by an Army official and a Superintendent of Police who had forced him not to go to the Supreme Court; that when he was nearing his house at about 5:45 p.m., he saw barricades and pickets erected on the road leading to his residence; that on reaching his house, he saw that the national and the emblem flag flying there had been pulled down and he was shocked, though not surprised, that battalions of policemen and men of the ‘AGENCIES’ were swarming inside and outside his house; that his lady-wife, his two young daughters and two young sons stood huddled into one bedroom while the rest of the house had been taken over by the said men; that all his telephone lines and television cables had been disconnected and the mobile telephones and other devices had been jammed; that his domestic servants were whisked away by some ‘AGENCY’ officials and were allowed to return home only after 2/3 days; that till March 13, his daughters were not allowed to go to their school and college; that his seven years old son who suffered from physical handicaps and required constant medical attention, was deprived of the said facilities and that on March 13, when he had decided to walk down to the Supreme Court building to appear before the S.J.C as his cars had been lifted away, he was man-handled by police officials who even caught him from his hair and tried to bundle him into a vehicle which he refused to board on account of his security and safety concerns . He had added that on getting exposed to the world outside on the said March 13, he came to know that some members his personal staff, including an Additional Registrar of the Supreme Court, namely. Hammad Raza who was on officer belonging to the District Management Group and was on deputation with the Supreme Court working also as a Personal Staff office of the CJP, had also been taken away by the men of the ‘AGENCIES’ ; detained at some un-known place; interrogated and pressurized to give evidence against the C.J.P. It may be mentioned here that this Hammad Raza who was the only child of his parents and was the father of three small children including a few months’ old son, was murdered in the early hours of the 14th of May, 2007 i.e. the day on which this Bench was to commence the hearing of this petition and according to his young widow, this was in fact a message for the Judges comprising this Bench.

Summarising the facts and circumstances leading to and attending the impugned exercise in question, it may be stated :-

(a) that it was the CJP who had been SUMMONED to the Army House/the President’sCampOfficefor the 9th of March meeting where the President met him (the CJP) in his Army uniform;

(b) that instead of the persons really concerned with the matter, like the Law Minister and the Attorney General etc., the ones present in the meeting were only the Chiefs of the Intelligence Agencies and General in uniform;

(c) that the CJP was asked to abdicate his office which he declined to do;

(d) that the impugned Reference was then hurriedly put in place asking the concerned officials in the Presidency, the P.M.’s Secretariat and the Law Ministry to remain available despite the said day being a Friday and thus a half working day and while all these matters were being organized and finalized, the CJP was kept in captivity and ‘IN COMMUNICADO” at the Army House/the President’s Camp Office till his ouster was accomplished through making him dysfunctional and appointing an Acting Chief Justice of Pakistan ;

(e) that some imperceptible hands then hastily engineered a meeting of the Supreme Judicial Council the same evening, even using some un-identifiable flying object to transport at least one Hon. Member thereof to ensure his participation in the said meeting;

(f) that the S.J.C. then passed a further order, without there being a request or a prayer for the purpose, and even without being empowered so to do and restrained the CJP from performing his functions as the CJP or even as a Judge;

(g) that to ensure that these designs were fully consummated, without any resistance, the CJP was put under house-arrest and was rendered IN COMMUNICADO; and

(h) that in the rush to achieve the given target, no heed at all was paid by the S.J.C to the objections raised by the CJP about the alleged bias of at least three out of the five Hon. Members of the S.J.C. and to his earnest and persistent demand that the proceedings of the S.J.C. be not held IN-CAMEA and that he be allowed an open and a public trial. [pp. 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 189, 191, 201] A, B,C, D, F, G, H, I, J, SS, TT, UU

Constitution of Pakistan(1973) Arts. 209(5)(6), 210, 211 & 184-

This then brings me to the next question in the context of maintainability of this petition i.e. whether this Court would have the jurisdiction to deal with the matter in question despite the ouster clause contained in Article 211 of the Constitution. Although, what is relevant for the said purpose are only the provisions of clauses (5) and (6) of Article 209 and the provisions of the said Article 211 of the Constitution but for a better understanding of the issue, it would be appropriate to notice the entire scheme envisaged by the Constitution for the removal of a Superior Court Judge who, on account of some mental or physical disability, was no longer capable of discharging his said obligations or who had misconducted himself and was no longer a desirable person to adorn the said high office.

A perusal of the above-quoted provisions of Article 209 would reveal that clauses (1) to (4) thereof envisage the existence and the constitution of Supreme Judicial Council while the provisions of clauses (5) and (6) of the said Article 209 tell us of various steps of the exercise leading to the removal of a Superior Court Judge. I may add that as would appear from the said provisions, the action in question could now be initiated by both i.e. by the President as also by the Supreme Judicial Council itself. Since in the present case, the proceedings in question had commenced at the instance of the President, therefore, I would confine myself only to the said situation.

It thus transpires that the exercise in question prescribed by Article 209 of the Constitution consists of the above-noted eight stages or steps starting with the receipt of the relevant information by the President and ending, either with the dropping of the proceedings against the concerned Judge, or his removal by the President, as the case may be. Let us now revert to the provisions of the ouster clause i.e. Article 211 of the Constitution to find out the extent to which the Constitution seeks to protect the said exercise against judicial scrutiny. The said provisions have been quoted above but are being reproduced hereunder for ready reference:-

   "211.  Bar of Jurisdiction.  -  The PROCEEDINGS BEFORE the COUNCIL, its REPORT to the PRESIDENT  and the REMOVAL OF A JUDGE under clause (6) of Article 209 SHALL NOT BE CALLED IN QUESTION in any COURT.  (Emphasis and under-lining has been supplied).

It will thus be noticed that out of the above-mentioned eight steps in the exercise in question, what is sought to be protected are the following three matters only, namely :-

   (i)    proceedings before the Council;

   (ii)   report of the S.J.C to the President, as a result of the said proceedings; and finally,

    (iii)  the removal of the concerned Judge.

Meaning thereby that the Constitution makes no attempt at all to keep the remaining matters out of the purview of the Courts of law, namely :-

    (i)    receipt of information by the President, from any source, about the mental or physical disability of a Judge or about his being guilty of misconduct;

    (ii)   collection of material in support of the said information;

    (iii)  formation of opinion by the President about such a disability or misconduct of a Judge; and the consequent

    (iv)   direction (generally called a Reference) by the President to the Council to inquire into the matter.

The submission loses sight of the fact that the word ‘PROCEEDINGS’ does not stand alone or unqualified in the said provision but stands restricted and qualified by three other words i.e., ‘BEFORE THE COUNCIL’. What we, therefore, need to find out is not what is meant by the word ‘proceedings’ but the meaning of the expression “PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COUNCIL”.

According to the English language dictionaries, the word ‘PROCEEDINGS’ means the ‘ACTS’ the ‘ACTIONS’, the ‘DEEDS’, the ‘STEPS’ and the ‘HAPPENINGS’ while the word ‘BEFORE’ means ‘IN FRONT OF’ or ‘IN THE PRESENCE OF’ . And when translated into simpler language, easily comprehensible by all concerned, the expression, ‘THE PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COUNCIL’, would mean, the acts, the actions, the deeds, the steps and all the happenings taking place in front of or in the presence of the Council. Therefore, the said expression would cover only those matters which take place before or in front of the S.J.C. and no other. Meaning thereby that any event or business or any part of the exercise in question taking place elsewhere would not fall within the purview of the said expression e.g., receipt of relevant information by the President; collection of evidence relating thereto; formation of opinion by the President about making a Reference in the matter to the S.J.C. and the consequent direction to the said Council. Needless to add that the exercise envisaged by Article 209 is bi-foral i.e. certain things happening at the President’s end and other things taking place before the S.J.C. And if the framers of the Constitution had understood English language as the said learned ASC for the Federation is canvassing i.e. proceedings before the Council meaning “everything from the start to the end”, then the founding fathers would not have wasted words to mention also the report of the Council to the President and the removal of Judge by him, in the said Article 211. Every student of law is expected to know the principle which is too well established by now that no redundancy or surplusage could ever be attributed to a draftsman much less to the one drafting the Constitution. It may be clarified that the report of the Council to the President should not be confused as a matter happening before the said Council as the report required to be sent to the President was not something taking place before the S.J.C but only a result of whatever had transpired or had taken place before it. It may be added that if the intention of the Constitution was to grant immunity to all the acts and proceedings “from the start to the end”, then there was nothing stopping the Constitution makers from saying in Article 211 simply that no proceedings under Article 209 would be called in question in any court, which was not done and what had instead been done was grant of protection to some only of the proceedings envisaged by the said Article 209.

There is no cavil with the proposition that the word “PROCEEDINGS” is a comprehensive term and would ordinarily include every step towards the progress of a cause in a court or before a tribunal. But then we also need to remember that a narrow or a wider import could be given to the said word depending upon the nature and the scope of the enactment in which the same was used with particular reference to the language of the law in which it appeared. Reference may be made to GANGA NAICEEN VS. SUNDARAM AYYAS (AIR 1956 Madras 597). Reference may also be made to MUHAMMAD ISMAIL’S CASE (PLD 1969 SC 241) wherein it ha been declared by this Court that the purpose of construction or interpretation of statutory provisions was no doubt to ascertain the true intention of the Legislature, yet that intention had, of necessity, to be gathered from the words used by the Legislature, itself and that if the words were so clear and unmistakable that they could not be given any meaning other than that which they carried in their ordinary grammatical sense, then the said were the meanings to be attached to the said words. As has been mentioned above, the word “PROCEEDINGS” used in Article 211 of the Constitution did not stand unqualified in the said provision but stood restricted by express words i.e., ‘BEOFRE THE COUNCIL” and the said word, therefore, had to be given a restricted meaning in the context of the language used in the said provision.

Having thus determined the operational area of Article 211 of the Constitution and the extent to which the immunity granted by it extended, we revert back to the petition in hand and find that the acts impugned therethrough were two-fold i.e. the actions taken on the 9th of March at the President’s end including the making of the direction under clause (5) of Article 209 i.e. sending of the Reference to the S.J.C. and then some proceedings taken before the said Council. It has been declared above that, no immunity attaches to the happenings and the actions prior to the matter reaching the S.J.C. and the said actions were, therefore, subject to scrutiny by this Court like any other administrative act. However, the matter relating to the proceedings before the S.J.C. which also stood questioned before us, warrants further examination.

Essentially, because of the repeated military interventions, our Constitutional and Judicial history is brimful with ouster of jurisdiction clauses and the treatment metted out to the same by the Superior Courts. The issue has been so frequently raised and equally frequently examined that nothing new remains available to be said on the subject. It has been repeatedly and consistently declared by this Court that a mere incorporation of such a provision in the Constitution or in any other law for the matter, did not by itself preclude a court from entering the arena sought to be protected as the judicial power, being inherent in this Apex Court, it was not its privilege but in fact is obligation to examine such like ouster clauses and then to determine the extent of the claimed immunity. [p. 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130] K, L, M,N,O,P,Q,S,T