In the name of Allah, the most
Beneficent, the most Merciful.
*THE CONSTITUTION OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN
[April 12, 1973]
Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;
And whereas it is the will of the people ofPakistanto establish an order—
Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;
Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;
Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;
Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;
Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;
Wherein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;
Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;
Wherein the independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured;
Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights, including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;
So that the people ofPakistanmay prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity:
Now, therefore, we, the people ofPakistan,
Conscious of our responsibility before Almighty Allah and men;
Cognisant of the sacrifices made by the people in the cause ofPakistan;
Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, thatPakistanwould be a democratic State based on Islamic Principles of social justice;
Dedicated to the preservation of democracy achieved by the unremitting struggle of the people against oppression and tyranny;
Inspired by the resolve to protect our national and political unity and solidarity by creating an egalitarian society through a new order;
Do hereby, through our representatives in the National Assembly, adopt, enact and give to ourselves, this Constitution.
* The Constitution ofPakistan1973 was enacted by the National Assembly onApril 10, 1973and authenticated by the President of the National Assembly and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 195, onApril 12, 1973.
Pursuant to Art. 265 the Constitution came into force onAugust 14, 1973, referred to in the said Article as the ‘Commencing day’.
The Constitution was held in abeyance by the Proclamation of Martial Law issued by General M. Zia-ul-Haq onJuly 5, 1977and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 411, on the said date.
The Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985 (President’s Order No. 14 of 1985), promulgated on the March 2, 1985 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 101, on the said date and the Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1985, (XVIII of 1985), enacted on November 11, 1985 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 404, on the said date, effected drastic and major changes in the Constitution, prior to its revival in 1985.
The Constitution, except for Arts. 6, 8 to 28 (both inclusive) clauses 2 and 2(a) of Art. 101, Arts. 199, 213 to 216 (both inclusive) and 270-A, was revived by the Enforcement of Constitution Order onMarch 10, 1985, (vide S.R.O. No. 212(85)), published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part II, at page 279, on the said date. The excluded provisions came into force on December 30, 1985 by virtue of Enforcement of Constitution Notification of Ministry of Justice, (vide S.R.O. No. 1278(1)/85), published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part II, at page 3185, on December 29, 1985.
The whole of Pakistan once again came under the control of the Armed Forces of Pakistan on October 12, 1999, by virtue of the Proclamation of Emergency issued by General Pervez Musharraf, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and Chief of Army Staff, on October 14, 1999 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 1265, on the said date. By virtue of the said Proclamation Pervez Musharraf also assumed the office of Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Constitution was again held in abeyance by the Provisional Constitution Order No. 1 of 1999, issued by the Chief Executive onOctober 14, 1999and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 1267, on the said date as well. However, the said Order provided, in Art. 2 thereof, that notwithstanding the abeyance of the Constitution,Pakistanshall, subject to the said Order and any other Order made by the Chief Executive, be governed, as nearly as may be, in accordance with the Constitution.
The Legal Framework Order 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), promulgated on August 21, 2002 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 1031, on the said date, in Article 4 thereof, provided that the provisions of the constitution, as amended by the said Order and by such other Order, as may be promulgated thereafter, shall stand revived on such date as the Chief Executive may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and that different days may be so appointed in respect of different provisions.
The Legal Framework (Amendment) Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 29 of 2002), promulgated on October 9, 2002 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 1295, on the said date, further amended Arts. 51, 106 and also amended Arts. 179, 193 and 195 of the Constitution and the Legal Framework (Second Amendment) Order, 2002, (Chief Executive’s Order No. 32 of 2002), promulgated on October 26, 2002 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 1469, on the said date, further amended Arts. 59 and 152A of the Constitution.
The Preamble, Arts. 1 to 58 (both inclusive), Arts. 64 to 100 (both inclusive), Arts. 139 to 231 (both inclusive), Arts. 240 to 280 (both inclusive), the Annex and the Schedules to the Constitution were revived, on November 16, 2002, by Statutory Notification (vide S.R.O. 799(I)/2002), issued on November 15, 2002 and published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part II, at page 3207, on November 16, 2002. Thereafter Arts. 59 to 63 (both inclusive) and Arts. 232 to 239 (both inclusive) were revived on March 12, 2003, the day the members elected to the Senate took oath ofoffice; Arts. 105 and 127 were revived on November 11, 2002, the day the first Chief Minister took oath of office; Arts. 101 to 104 (both inclusive) Arts. 106 to 126 (both inclusive) and Arts. 128 to 138 (both inclusive), were revived on November 25, 2002 and the remaining provisions of the Constitution were revived on December 31, 2002 by virtue of Statutory Notification (vide S.R.O. 828(I)/2002), issued on November 22, 2002 and published, in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part II, at page 3273, on November 23, 2002.
Section 10 of the Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 2003 (3 of 2003), published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 149, on December 31, 2003, has now validated and affirmed all the amendments made in the Constitution by the Legal Framework Order, 2002 LFO (LFO (C.E.O. No. 24 of 2002)), the Legal Framework (Amendment) Order, 2002 (C.E.O. No. 29 of 2002) and the Legal Framework (Second Amendment) Order, 2002 (C.E.O. No. 32 of 2002), further amended Arts. 41, 58, 112, 179, 195, 243, 268 and 270AA of the Constitution and deleted Art. 152A thereof, inserted by the said LFO (C.E.O. No. 24 of 2002), with immediate effect.
During the period of unconstitutional rule, between 3rd of November, 2007 and 15th of December, 2007, President Pervez Musharraf, by Constitution (Amendment) Order, 2007, President’s Order No. 5 of 2007, purported to amend Articles 175, 186A, 198, 218, 270B and 270C and add new Article 270AAA to the Constitution w.e.f. November 20, 2007; and, by Constitution (Second Amendment) Order, 2007, President’s Order No. 6 of 2007, he also purported to amend Articles 41, 44, 193, 194, 208 and 270C to the Constitution w.e.f. December 14, 2007.
The said amendments, were not validated by the Parliament. They were also held to void ab initio and of no legal effect by the Supreme Court in C.P. No. 09 of 2009 SHCBA v/s Federation of Pakistan on 30th September, 2009. Thereafter section 2 of the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010 subject to Art. 264 and the provisions of the said Act :
(a) declared the Legal Framework Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), the Legal Framework (Amendment) Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 29 of 2002) and the Legal Framework (Second Amendment) Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 32 of 2002), “…..to have been made without lawful authority and of no legal effect” and, therefore…(stood) repealed” ; and
(b) Repealed the Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment), Act, 2003 (III of 2003), which received the assent of the President onDecember 31, 2003.
The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010 (10 of 2010) was published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 267, on April 20, 2010, (w.e.f. April 19, 2010). In 1973, the framers of the Constitution of Pakistan envisaged a parliamentary form of government for Pakistan. After two periods of unconstitutional rule, under President General M. Zia-ul-Haq and President General Pervez Musharraf and drastic amendments wrought by the Constitution Eight Amendment Act, 1985 and the Constitution Seventeenth Amendment Act, 2003, the Constitution in 2010, in fact, provided for a quasi presidential form of government. One of the main purposes of the Eighteenth Amendment Act, by effecting changes in Articles relating to the powers of the President and the Prime Minster, was to restore the balance of power in favour of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Article 175A, inserted by the Eighteenth Amendment Act of 2010, now provides for a two tier system of appointment of Judges, where under nominations for appointment of Judges of the Superior Courts are to be made by the Judicial Commission, consisting primarily of members of the judiciary and the Bar, which are required to be confirmed by a Parliamentary Committee, in which the Treasury and the Opposition have equal representation.
In CP No. 14 of 2010, Supreme Court Bar Association v/s Federation of Pakistan, the Petitioners called in question amendments to several Articles of the Constitution through the Eighteenth Amendment Act, 2010. In particular, the insertion of new Article 175A was challenged on the ground that it violated one of the salient features of the Constitution, namely Independence of Judiciary. The Petitioners argued that the judgments of the Supreme Court, relating to the Basic Features doctrine, should be revisited by the Court and the provision should be struck down on the touchstone of the said doctrine.
In its interim Order in CP No.14 of 2010, the Court drew attention to the reservations, concerns and suggestions of the Petitioners with respect to the new Article 175A and, in deference to the mandate of Parliament to legislate, referred the matter of the constitutional amendment to the process for appointment of Judges of the Superior Courts back to it for reconsideration, in the light thereof.
Thereafter, the Parliament passed the Nineteenth Amendment Act, 2010, which was published in the Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary Part I, at page 01, onJanuary 04, 2011. Under the said Act, Article 175A of the Constitution was amended so as to provide for the inclusion of four (4) senior most Judges of the Supreme Court on the Judicial Commission. The Parliamentary Committee is now required to hold its meetings in-camera, record its reasons for not confirming, by a ¾ majority of its total membership, the nomination and forward the same to the Judicial Commission. However, under the Nineteenth Amendment Act, 2010 the Parliament specifically retained the proviso to clause (12) of the Article, where under the Commission is required to send another nomination, in case its nominee is rejected by the Committee.
In C.P. No. 10 and 18 of 2011, Munir Hussain Bhatti and others v/s The Federation of Pakistan, the decision of the Parliamentary Committee to reject the nomination of six (6) Additional Judges was challenged by the aggrieved Judges. The Supreme Court, in its Order dated 4th of March, 2011, was of the view that the Parliamentary Committee had usurped the Constitutional Jurisdiction of the Commission, in passing judgment on the professional calibre and legal acumen of the said judicial nominees; which is the exclusive domain of the Commission.
The Court held that the reasons to be recorded by the Committee for rejection of a nomination were justiciable and agreed that in this case they were irrelevant, unjustified and improper under the law and without legal force. The decision of the Parliamentary Committee was set aside and the Federation was directed to issue necessary notifications for the appointment of the judicial nominees.
Leading & Latest Cases on Article 184 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 :
|PLD 1973 SC 49
CH. AKBAR ALI
|ZIA-UR-REHMAN AND OTHERS
SECRETARY, MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, RAWALPINDI AND ANOTHER
|P L D 1994 SC 23||NASRULLAH KHAN HENJRA||GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN|
|1998 CLC 1099||MST. NASREEN RIAZ AND ANOTHER||LAHORE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY|