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Article: 18 Freedom of trade, business or profession

18. Freedom of trade; business or profession.-Subject to such qualifications, if any, as may be prescribed by law, every citizen shall have the right to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation, and to conduct any lawful trade or business:

Provided that nothing in this Article shall prevent-

(a) the regulation of any trade or profession by a licensing system; or

(b) the regulation of trade, commerce or industry in the interest of free competition therein; or

(c) the carrying on, by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, or by a corporation controlled by any such Government, of any trade, business, industry or service, to the exclusion, complete or partial, of other persons.

_________________________________________________________________________________

Footnotes:



Comparative Table of Article 18 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973
Constitution of Pakistan 1962 :

6(II.8)

Constitution of Pakistan 1956 :

12

Constitution   of   India    1950:

19(1)

Government of India Act 1935:

298(1)

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Leading & Latest Cases on Article 18 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 :

P L D 1994 SC 621
WASEY ZAFAR AND OTHERS
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN AND OTHERS
1997 SCMR 1043  MUSHTAQ AHMAD MOHAL AND OTHERS  THE HONOURABLE LAHORE HIGH COURT, LAHORE AND OTHERS
P L D 2005 SC 193
ARSHAD MEHMOOD AND OTHERS
GOVERNMENT OF PUNJAB THROUGH SECRETARY, TRANSPORT CIVIL SECRETARIATE
2005 CLC 144  CHAZANFAR ALI CHAUDHARY AND ANOTHER  PROVINCE OF PUNJAB THROUGH SECRETARY, TRANSPORT, GOVERNMENT OF PUNJAB
2006 CLD 1191
MESSRS YOUSAF SUGR MILLS
TRUST LEASING CORPORATION AND OTHERS
2006 YLR 619  MESSTRS NOBLE ENTERPRISES THROUGH MIAN MUHAMAMD SHAFIQ  STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN THROUGH CHIEF MANAGER AND ANOTHER
MESSRS M.A. ALEEM KHAN THROUGH CHAIRMAN
PROVINCE OF THE PUNJAB THROUGH SECRETARY, COMMUNICATION AND WORKS DEPT
P L D 2007 KARACHI 116  IMDAD HUSSAIN  PROVINCE OF SINDH THROUGH SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT OF SINDH
P L D 2013 SC 195   SYED MAHMOOD AKHTAR NAQVI AND OTHERS  FEDERATION OF PAKISTAN AND OTHERS

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